Accelerated MRI with CIRcular Cartesian UnderSampling (CIRCUS): a variable density Cartesian sampling strategy for compressed sensing and parallel imaging

Jing Liu, David Saloner


Purpose: This study proposes and evaluates a novel method for generating efficient undersampling patterns for 3D Cartesian acquisition with compressed sensing (CS) and parallel imaging (PI).
Methods: Image quality achieved with schemes that accelerate data acquisition, including CS and PI, are sensitive to the design of the specific undersampling scheme used. Ideally random sampling is required to recover MR images from undersampled data with CS. In practice, pseudo-random sampling schemes are usually applied. Radial or spiral sampling either for Cartesian or non-Cartesian acquisitions has been using because of its favorable features such as interleaving flexibility. In this study, we propose to undersample data on the ky-kz plane of the 3D Cartesian acquisition by circularly selecting sampling points in a way that maintains the features of both random and radial or spiral sampling.
Results: The proposed sampling scheme is shown to outperform conventional random and radial or spiral samplings for 3D Cartesian acquisition and is found to be comparable to advanced variable-density Poisson- Disk sampling (vPDS) while retaining interleaving flexibility for dynamic imaging, based on the results with retrospective undersampling. Our preliminary results with the prospective implementation of the proposed undersampling strategy demonstrated its favorable features.
Conclusions: The proposed undersampling patterns for 3D Cartesian acquisition possess the desirable properties of randomization and radial or spiral trajectories. It provides easy implementation, flexible sampling, and high accuracy of image reconstruction with CS and PI.