A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with Cor Pulmonale

Wen Chen, Tao Gu


Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the formation and deposition of microliths within the alveoli and a paucity of symptoms in contrast to the imaging findings. It has familial tendency and is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder with the mutation in the SLC34A2 gene. We describe a case of PAM with Cor Pulmonale. Ultrasonic cardiogram showed pulmonary hypertension (82 mmHg). Chest radiography revealed diffuse, bilateral sandstorm-like micronodules with greater density in the lower lung fields. HRCT scans demonstrated diffuse ground-grass opacities, thickening and calcification of interlobular septa and confluent calcified nodules. A diagnosis of PAM was suggested and confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB).