Original Article


Characterizing optical coherence tomography speckle fluctuation spectra of mammary organoids during suppression of intracellular motility

Lin Yang, Xiao Yu, Ashley M. Fuller, Melissa A. Troester, Amy L. Oldenburg

Abstract

Background: An understanding of how the mammary gland responds to toxicant and drug exposures can shed light on mechanisms of breast cancer initiation/progression and therapeutic effectiveness, respectively. In this study, we employed noninvasive, label-free and high-throughput optical coherence tomography speckle fluctuation spectroscopy (OCT-SFS) to track exposure-response relationships in three-dimensional (3D) mammary epithelial organoid models.
Methods: OCT-SFS is sensitive to relatively high speed (~0.16–8 µm/min) motions of subcellular light scattering components occurring over short (~2–114 s) time scales, termed “intracellular motility.” In this study, OCT speckle fluctuation spectra are quantified by two metrics: the intracellular motility amplitude, M, and frequency-dependent motility roll-off, α. OCT-SFS was performed on human mammary organoid models comprised of pre-malignant MCF10DCIS.com cells or MCF7 adenocarcinoma cells over 6 days of exposure to either a microtubule inhibitor (Paclitaxel, Taxol) or a myosin II inhibitor (Blebbistatin). Raw values of α and M were normalized to a dynamic range corresponding to fixed (0%) and live/homeostatic (100%) organoids for each cell line.
Results: In this work, we observed a significant decrease in both M and α of MCF10DCIS.com organoids after 24 hours of exposure to Taxol (P<0.001), and a significant decrease only in α for MCF7 organoids after 48 hours of exposure (P<0.0001). We also observed a significant decrease in both M and α of MCF7 organoids at the longest exposure time of 6 days to Blebbistatin (P<0.0001), and a significant decrease only in M for MCF10DCIS.com organoids after 24 hours of exposure (P<0.01).
Conclusions: OCT-SFS revealed cell line-specific response patterns, in terms of intracellular motility, to different motility suppression mechanisms. This provides a foundation for future OCT-SFS studies of longitudinal responses of the mammary gland in toxicology and drug research.