Different patterns of left ventricular rotational mechanics in cardiac amyloidosis—results from the three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic MAGYAR-Path Study
Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is an infiltrative disease primarily caused by extracellular tissue deposition of amyloid fibrils in the myocardial interstitium. The aim of the present study was to examine left ventricular (LV) rotational mechanics in biopsy-proven CA by three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE). Ten patients (65.3±11.5 years, 6 males) with CA entered the study. The mean basal LV rotations were 0.3±3.8°, while mean apical LV rotations proved to be 7.0±3.3°. LV basal and apical rotations were in the same counterclockwise direction in 6 out of 10 CA patients demonstrating near absence of LV twist [LV rigid body rotation (RBR)]. Apico-basal difference was near 3 or less degrees in three patients with LV-RBR, and 6-10 degrees in the other three subjects with LV-RBR. One another patient showed normal rotational mechanics, while two patients had significant hyporotations and one had significant hyperrotations in normal directions. To conclude with, different patterns of LV rotational mechanics could be demonstrated in CA. LV RBR, the near absence of LV twist seems to be a frequent phenomenon in CA.