Kinetic and perfusion modeling of hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate and urea in cancer with arbitrary RF flip angles
The accurate detection and characterization of cancerous tissue is still a major problem for the clinical management of individual cancer patients and for monitoring their response to therapy. MRI with hyperpolarized agents is a promising technique for cancer characterization because it can non-invasively provide a local assessment of the tissue metabolic profile. In this work, we measured the kinetics of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate and 13C-urea in prostate and liver tumor models using a compressed sensing dynamic MRSI method. A kinetic model fitting method was developed that incorporated arbitrary RF flip angle excitation and measured a pyruvate to lactate conversion rate, Kpl, of 0.050 and 0.052 (1/s) in prostate and liver tumors, respectively, which was significantly higher than Kpl in healthy tissues [Kpl =0.028 (1/s), P<0.001]. Kpl was highly correlated to the total lactate to total pyruvate signal ratio (correlation coefficient =0.95). We additionally characterized the total pyruvate and urea perfusion, as in cancerous tissue there is both existing vasculature and neovascularization as different kinds of lesions surpass the normal blood supply, including small circulation disturbance in some of the abnormal vessels. A significantly higher perfusion of pyruvate (accounting for conversion to lactate and alanine) relative to urea perfusion was seen in cancerous tissues (liver cancer and prostate cancer) compared to healthy tissues (P<0.001), presumably due to high pyruvate uptake in tumors.