Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: the end of the story?

Hana Malikova


Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) have been standardly intravenously applied to improve visibility of MRI examinations since 1988, when gadopentetate dimeglumine (Magnevist®) was approved for clinical practice. Gadolinium itself is a heavy metal, highly toxic in biological systems. Therefore, gadolinium must be bound to ligands for the purpose of contrast agents.