Tuberculosis mediastinal fibrosis misdiagnosed as chronic bronchitis for 10 years: a case report
Mediastinal fibrosis (MF, or fibrosing mediastinitis) is a rare condition characterized by rapid increase of fibrous tissues in the mediastinum and is often associated with granulomatous diseases such as histoplasmosis, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and other fibroinflammatory and autoimmune diseases (1-3). It can cause compression and obliteration of vital mediastinal structures, e.g., trachea, esophagus, and great vessels (4,5). Given that the disease is rare and its clinical symptoms are similar to other respiratory diseases, misdiagnosis is common. Herein, we describe a patient with diffuse MF who had been misdiagnosed as chronic bronchitis and pulmonary hypertension for the past 10 years.