3D multi-tissue printing for kidney transplantation
The kidneys are among the most commonly transplanted organs in the world. Transplant patients, as a consequence of their kidney disease and other risk factors which make it difficult for the surgeon to perform vascular anastomosis during kidney transplantation, often have numerous arterial calcifications. The preoperative assessment for transplantation includes an abdominal and pelvic CT scan without contrast that allows for the mapping of atheromatous calcification. However, non-contrast enhanced CT is not optimal and the surgeon is obliged to palpate the arteries during the operation to choose the anatomical site of the vascular anastomosis. This technical note reports the development of a new technique of preoperative reproduction of atherosclerotic arteries, owing to advancements in 3D multi-tissue printing technology. We used scans of four patients with varying degrees of calcified atheroma to model and print their arteries for their pre-surgical planning.