Article Abstract

Type II endoleak model creation and intraoperative aneurysmal sac embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate-lipiodol-ethanol mixture (NLE) in swine

Authors: Motoki Nakai, Akira Ikoma, Romaric Loffroy, Marco Midulla, Atsufumi Kamisako, Nobuyuki Higashino, Kodai Fukuda, Tetsuo Sonomura

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of type II endoleak model creation and efficacy of intraoperative aneurysmal sac embolization using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate-lipiodol-ethanol mixture (NLE) for type II endoleak in swine.
Methods: In six swine (mean body weight 53.5 kg), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was created and then end-to-side anastomosis between the left renal artery and AAA sac was performed. And then, endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) was performed, leading to creation of a type II endoleak model. As control group, EVAR without sac embolization was performed in two swine. In four swine, AAA sac was embolized using NLE immediately after EVAR via the microcatheter placed in AAA sac (NLE embolization group). Follow-up aortography was performed immediately and three days after the procedure, and then the aneurysms were extracted.
Results: The AAA sac and type II endoleak model were successfully created in all cases. In control group, type II endoleak persisted three days after the procedure. In NLE embolization group, endoleak disappeared immediately and three days after the procedure. In NLE embolization group, AAA sac was occupied with thrombus and embolic material. Inflammatory changes were recognized in aneurysmal sac wall in NLE embolization group.
Conclusions: This experimental study suggests that creation of a type II endoleak model in swine is feasible and that intraoperative AAA sac embolization with NLE during EVAR might reduce the occurrence of type II endoleak.