Comprehensive genotype-phenotype correlation in lissencephaly

Ai Peng Tan, Wui Khean Chong, Kshitij Mankad


Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are a heterogenous group of disorders with diverse genotypic and phenotypic variations. Lissencephaly is a subtype of MCD caused by defect in neuronal migration, which occurs between 12 and 24 weeks of gestation. The continuous advancement in the field of molecular genetics in the last decade has led to identification of at least 19 lissencephaly-related genes, most of which are related to microtubule structural proteins (tubulin) or microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The aim of this review article is to bring together current knowledge of gene mutations associated with lissencephaly and to provide a comprehensive genotype-phenotype correlation. Illustrative cases will be presented to facilitate the understanding of the described genotype-phenotype correlation.