Deep infiltrating endometriosis MR imaging with surgical correlation: a pictorial review
In this pictorial review, MR imaging findings of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are illustrated together with surgical correlation. DIE can appear as irregular nodules or plaques with similar signal intensity to muscle on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images. Hemorrhage foci and strands or stellate margins are also often noted. Restriction of diffusion can be seen on diffusion-weighted image. Fibrosis and adhesions often result in morphologic changes, such as alimentary tract tortuosity, irregular or nodular thickening of uterosacral ligaments, and partial or complete obliteration of the pouch of Douglas. After intravenous gadolinium contrast agent administration, homo- or heterogeneous mild to moderate enhancement can be observed. MR imaging can depict endometriosis lesions and extension of DIE at different anatomic locations, which is well consistent with surgical findings. Combining signal and morphological abnormalities, MR imaging can diagnose and assess the extension of DIE with high accuracy. MR imaging findings of DIE facilitate surgeons at treatment decision making and patient communication.