One-and-a-half syndrome with its spectrum disorders
One-and-a-half syndrome is a syndrome characterized by horizontal movement disorders of the eyeballs, which was first reported and named by Fisher in 1967. It presents a combination of ipsilateral conjugate horizontal gaze palsy (one) and ipsilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) (a half). On the basis of the one-and-a-half syndrome, there are a series of related rare syndromes called the one-and-a-half syndrome spectrum disorders. This article reviews rare cases of one-and-a-half syndrome spectrum disorder, describes the clinical and pathological features of different syndromes, and summarizes their nomenclature.