Computed tomography in congenital heart disease: how generic principles can be applied to create bespoke protocols in the Fontan circuit
Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has become an invaluable cross-sectional imaging modality in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. However, altered anatomical connections and cardiovascular physiology makes CHD arguably the most challenging area in CCT imaging, which remains a complimentary modality to cardiac magnetic resonance and echocardiography. A bespoke CT protocol is often required to achieve a diagnostic examination; this can be achieved through careful consideration of the basic principles of image acquisition and contrast administration. This article reviews these principles and demonstrates how they can be applied to CCT in CHD using the Fontan circulation as an example.